Glossary

PROJECT GLOSSARY

 

Apron: A short or long garment, usually worn to protect clothes, that is suspended from either the shoulder or the waist with attached strings or cords (leisure & work)

Baker Boy Cap: Similar in style to the flat cap, with the same overall shape and stiff peak, but a baker boy cap is rounder, fuller and its crown is panelled (work & 1920s) 

Bandeau:  A headband tied horizontally around the head (sport)

Bar shoes: A popular style of women’s shoe during the 1920s with a small heel and a strap across the instep (1920s)

Batik: A method of producing coloured designs on cloth by waxing the areas of the cloth not to be dyed. This technique become synonymous with Indonesia in the eighteenth century (travel)

Bell-Bottoms: A style of trousers that are cut with fullness on the inner and outer seams, which give a flare at the hem (leisure & work)

Bias Cut: The fabric is cut diagonally, which makes it stretchy and enables it to relate to the movement of the body beneath it. It was favoured by French couturier Madeleine Vionnet (1930s)

Blazer: A lightweight semi-tailored jacket usually made with a notched collar and patch pockets (travel)

Bodice: A close-fitting woman’s garment worn on the upper body, often laced and worn over a dress or blouse (travel)

Bonnet: A woman’s soft hat that ties around the chin and has a front brim (leisure)

Bowler: A man’s hard round-crowned felt hat with narrow brim, which is slightly rolled in (leisure)

Braces: Two supporting bands of elastic, leather, or cloth, worn across the shoulders and fastened at the waistline to trousers, a skirt, or a belt (work)

Brogues: A style of shoe decorated with rows of perforations. They can also be decorated with stitching or pinkings.  They were a popular choice of shoe for men during the 1920s and were generally made of leather (1920s)

Buster suit: A suit for small boys consisting of a shirt and shorts made of matching or coordinating fabric and held together by buttons at the waist.

Chiffon: A sheer, lightweight plain-woven textile of fine, tightly-twisted yarn, often made of silk (1920s)

Cloche: A woman’s hat popularised in the 1920s, which has a bell shaped crown (leisure, 1920s)

Corduroy: A thick cotton fabric with velvet ribs (1920s)

Corsage: A spray of flowers worn pinned to women’s clothes (1930s)

Corset: A women’s undergarment that extends from or below the bust down to the waist, stiffened by strips of steel or whalebone to support and mould the figure. (sport)

Cotton: A cloth of soft white fibre, which is often dyed, derived from the cotton plant found in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is often used in summer clothing for its lightweight properties (travel)

Crêpe de Chine: A light and fine fabric produced with an all silk warp and weft or a silk warp and worsted weft (1930s)

Fez: Close-fitting, cone-shaped cap with a flat crown usually of felt. It can be trimmed with a long tassel and originated in Turkey (travel)

Flannel: Soft twill with a slightly napped surface that is made in various weights of wool (leisure)

Flat caps: Round caps with low, flat crowns (leisure)

Flohpelze: Pelts, usually sable or marten, commonly mounted with decorated heads and paws of crystal or gold ornamented with gems. Worn either around the neck and shoulders, suspended by a chain from a girdle, or carried in the hand (1930s)

Gauze: A woven textile in which the binding is achieved by a displacement of warp ends secured by the weft, resulting usually, though not always, in a very open weave (sport)

Grass skirt: Skirt made of long stems of grass bound to a waistband (leisure)

Grosgrain: A heavy ribbed fabric of silk or rayon (travel)

Half-belt: A belt found on the back of a garment. It is often rounded and attached with a button either end (sport)

Halterneck: A style of woman’s neckline that either consists of one strap around the back of the neck or it can also be two straps tied at the back of the neck  (leisure)

Headcloth: A term generally applied to a cloth covering for the head (travel)

Inverted pleat: A box pleat reversed so that the fullness is turned inwards (sport)

Jantzen: American swimwear brand based in Portland, Oregon. The company’s emblem was of a girl in a red bathing costume diving (leisure)

Jersey: A knitted fabric of wool, cotton or synthetic fibres such as rayon (leisure)

Kid: The skin, usually of a young goat, used in the manufacture of fashion accessories. Kid was frequently used as a material for 1920s shoes (1920s)

Kilts: Short, pleated, wrap skirts that are usually made of tartan, developed in the mid-18th century in the Highlands of Scotland, and now the Scottish national dress (travel)

Kimono: Loose, wide-sleeved garments fastened around the waist with an obi or broad sash, traditionally worn by Japanese men and women (travel)

Knickerbockers: Loose-cut breeches, banded at the knee, interchangeably used with the term ‘plus fours’ (sport)

Lace:  A fine, openwork ornamental textile formed by looping, interlacing, twisting, plaiting, or braiding threads of linen, cotton, silk, hair, metal, or another fibre to form designs or patterns (1920s)

Lamé: A brocaded fabric woven with metallic threads, often of gold or silver (1930s)

Lapels: The two parts of a garment folded back on the chest, especially a continuation of a coat collar (1920s)

Leather: A material that has been made from the skin or hide of an animal by tanning (1920s)

Linen: A textile woven from the spun fibre of the flax plant (travel)

Livery: A civil uniform worn by servants, an official or member of a City company (work)

Lounge suits: Men's two-or three-piece suits of matching material, worn in the United Kingdom for informal occasions from the 1860s (leisure)

Male Garters: Also known as sock suspenders these are made of soft elastic to ensure socks stay up and to eliminate wrinkles in the material (1930s)

Matletex: Cotton shirred on elastic thread, pioneered by Fred Cole of the American swimwear company Cole of California (leisure)

Merryweather:  A style of brass helmet worn by firemen for ceremonial occasions that was in use from the Victorian period (work)

Muslin: Lightweight cotton cloth that has a plain weave (leisure)

National Dress: A style of clothing specific to a country (travel)

Oilskins: Protective outerwear suits of jackets and trousers, made of oiled waterproof cloth (work)

Organdy: Sheer, lightweight, crisp, semitransparent cotton fabric. It is a plain woven cloth of fine combed yarns (1930s)

Overalls: One-piece garments that are worn over everyday clothes for protection (work)

Panama hat: A man’s lightweight hat made of fine, pale straw with a moulded ridge front to back across the crown. They originated from Central and South America (l920s)

Parasol: Small umbrella used as a sunshade or simply carried as a fashionable accessory (1920s and travel)

Paste: A type of jewellery containing glass made to resemble precious stones (1930s)

Patent leather: A process where one side of the leather is covered with a flexible waterproof film that has a lustrous and highly glazed surface produced by successive coats of daub, varnish, and lacquer (1920s)

Peter Pan Collar: A rounded flat collar, often found on children’s clothing (1930s)

Petticoat:  A woman’s underskirt extending from the waist (sport)

Pill Box hat: A small round, brimless hat (work)

Pinafore: A collarless and sleeveless dress worn over a blouse or a sweater (leisure)

Piping: A thin cord covered in fabric and inserted along a seam or hem for decoration (work)

Play-clothes: A form of clothing worn for summertime leisure, including shorts, playsuits and beach jackets (leisure)

Pleats: Folds in a fabric or garment that are made by doubling the material upon itself. It is then usually stitched or sometimes pressed in place (sport)

Plus Fours:  A style of loose-cut breeches banded four inches below the knee that was popularised by the Prince of Wales, also known as knickerbockers (sport)

Polo Shirt: A casual short-sleeved shirt with a collar and a few buttons at the neck (sport)

Pompom: A small ball, often made of woollen material that is attached to a garment for decorative purposes (leisure)

Raglan sleeve: Named after Lord Raglan who lost an arm in the Crimean war, his tailor designed special sleeves with diagonal seam settings to enable him to slip his jacket on and off with greater ease.  This design was subsequently named after him and these sleeves featured in the design of knitwear, sportswear and full-length coats (1930s)

Rayon: A synthetic fibre made from regenerated cellulose, which was developed as a cheap alternative to silk and thus was also known as ‘artificial silk.’ (1930s)

Revers: A lapel of a garment, turned back to show the reverse side (1930s)

Riding Boots: Boots, usually pull-on and knee-length, which are made of dark leather with a low heel and smooth sole worn for horse-riding (sport)

Riding Breeches: A 1920s and 1930s term for trousers that were generally worn by men and women for horseback riding. They were cut wide around the thighs and then tightly fitted from just above the knees to the calves (sport)

Riding Habits: Women’s riding wear from seventeenth century until the 1920s comprising a tailored jacket and long skirt (sport)

Sarong: Garment formed by wrapping a strip of cloth around the lower part of the body (travel)

Satin: A woven textile characterised by a smooth, shiny surface and dull back (1920s)

Scalloped hemline: A decorative curved hemline (1920s)

Separates: A category of clothing describing individual garments such as blouses, sweaters, skirts that could be worn interchangeably (sport)

Shooting Jacket: A sport jacket or coat, typically made of tweed or wool, and worn when shooting or hunting (sport)

Silk: A shiny natural textile with a soft, fine texture derived from silkworms (leisure)

Sock-Suspenders: Also known as male garters, these are made of soft elastic to ensure socks stay up and to eliminate wrinkles in the material (1930s)

Smocks: A full shirt-like garment that sometimes extends below the hips (travel)

Stockings: Hosiery that covers the foot and extends to the knee or above; can be heavy or lightweight (leisure)

Tail Coat: A man’s formal evening coat with long skirt divided into tails and cut away at the front (1930s)

Tiara:  A head ornament worn by women that is usually in the form of a curved band with a central peak, encrusted with diamonds or other gems (leisure)

Toga: A loose garment made of a single piece of cloth worn by men and women of ancient Rome (travel)

Top Hat: Tall, cylindrical hat with a stiff brim usually slightly curved on the sides; worn by men, especially on formal occasions (leisure)

Tricot:  A plain warp knit fabric that can be created with an array of fibres and fibre blends (1930s)

Trilby: A soft felt hat with a narrow brim, a deeply indented crown, and a pinch at the front (1930s)

Tunic: A simple slip-on garment made with or without sleeves and usually knee-length or longer and belted at the waist. It can also refer to garments extending from the neckline to the waist or longer, usually high-necked and worn over other garments (work)

Turban:  A length of material wound round a cap or the head, originating in eastern Mediterranean and southern Asian countries (travel)

Tutu:  A very full skirt that can be either short or long, traditionally made of net or tulle and worn by ballerinas (leisure)

Tweed: A rough woollen cloth flecked with mixed colours (work)

Veil: A thin and lightweight covering worn over the head or face, and sometimes extending to the shoulders, for ornament, protection, or concealment (travel)

Walking Stick: A stick held in the hand and used for support in walking, especially as a fashionable, and often ornamental accessory. In the 1920s and 1930s, they fell from fashion but men of the older generation continued to use them (1920s)

Winged Collar: A small standing collar, where the points stick out horizontally, worn with men’s evening dress (1920s)