The main aim of this project is to develop a novel spray model, which can be used both to analyse the processes involved in internal combustion (mainly gasoline) engines and to simulate drug delivery processes via medical sprays.
The project will bring together the respective expertise and experience of the groups to create a model that will combine the method of moments, developed at Kazan University (KU), and the models for multicomponent droplet heating and evaporation, developed at the University of Brighton (UoB). We anticipate that both models will be extended: firstly, the model developed at the UoB will be generalised to allow for the presence of solid particles in droplets, which is essential for the application of the model to the analysis of the drug delivery process. Secondly, the method of moments, developed at KU, will be generalised to take into account the effects of finite Stokes numbers, which is essential for the application of the model to internal combustion engines as fuel droplets in engines are expected to be about two orders of magnitude larger than those in medical sprays (typical droplet sizes 1-5 mkm).
The newly-developed model will be implemented in commercial CFD code ANSYS Fluent via User Defined Functions (UDF) (both groups in Kazan and Brighton have experience of implementing similar models in this code). We will apply the customised version of this code to the simulation of specific medical sprays and will evaluate its advantages compared to the conventional version of this code. This code will also be applied to the analysis of sprays in gasoline engines. In this case, the engine enclosure will be split into two regions: one in the vicinity of the nozzle, where the method of moments is not applicable with analysis based either on the conventional Eulerian-Lagrangian or Eulerian-Eulerian approaches implemented in ANSYS Fluent; and the other, remaining region where the new model will be applied.
Predictions resulting from the customised version of Fluent will be validated against in-house experimental data. A Dantec Dynamics Classical two-component phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) will be used to measure particle size and velocity distributions at the grid locations. Optimisation of the PDA system for dense spray measurements will form an important part of the study. We will use a forward scattering angle of 75 degrees. We will record axial and radial particle velocity components and diameter during injection, between injection events and over consecutive fuel injections. Data acquisition and validation rates will vary across measurement locations.
Contact between the two groups during reciprocal visits is vital for successful completion of the project. During these visits the Kazan group will familiarise itself with experimental facilities at the University of Brighton, while the Brighton group will familiarise themselves with the medical sprays environment. In addition to the scientific dimension of the project, exchange visits between project participants will enable us to organise a series of workshops, and lectures to be delivered by Professor Zaripov and Dr Gilfanov in the UK and Professors Heikal and Sazhin in Russia which will benefit the staff and students of both universities.