The project investigated anti-racism activities by fan groups across Europe. The research was a comparative study of three European fan groups from Italy, Germany and Poland; exploring their ideals, aims, activities and achievements. This approach was innovative as there are few comparative studies between anti-racist fan movements. By choosing to compare fan groups from Italy, Germany and Poland, this research provides a view of three different European football cultures. These three case studies address three national cultures with political engagement in football and traverse diverse cultures from Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe. Grassroots anti-racism movements operate in difficult environments and this research sought to discern the similarities and differences of these contexts. This demonstrates the importance of comparative study in order to fully understand the local context.